Three preliminary reports have been published concerning FLCs in renal transplant recipients. Li et al.  found that, out of a number of urinary proteins measured, FLCs provided the best prediction of early allograft rejection (n=103). Shabir et al.  measured serum ΣFLCs in two transplant cohorts (n=399 and n=40) and found variations according to the type and level of immunosuppression. It was speculated that sFLC measurement might provide information useful for managing immunosuppressive regimes. Shabir et al.  quantified ΣFLCs in serial serum samples collected from 79 renal transplant recipients and corrected values for renal function to give a better estimate of FLC production (eFLC). eFLC was lower when more aggressive immunosuppression was being administered and low levels were predictive of increased risk of infection.